2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Awarded for CRISPR/Cas9 ‘Genetic Scissors’

2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Awarded for CRISPR/Cas9

Two girls scientists gained the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry on Wednesday for creating genetic ‘scissors’ that may rewrite the code of life, contributing to new most cancers therapies and holding out the prospect of curing hereditary ailments.

Emmanuelle Charpentier, who’s French, and American Jennifer Doudna share the SEK 10 million (roughly Rs. eight crores) prize for growing the CRISPR/Cas9 device to edit the DNA of animals, vegetation and microorganisms with precision.

“The flexibility to chop the DNA the place you need has revolutionised the life sciences,” Pernilla Wittung Stafshede of the Swedish Academy of Sciences advised an award ceremony.

Charpentier, 51, and Doudna, 56, change into the sixth and seventh girls to win a Nobel for chemistry, becoming a member of Marie Curie, who gained in 1911, and extra just lately, Frances Arnold, in 2018.

It’s the first time since 1964, when Britain’s Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin alone gained the award, that no males are among the many winners of the chemistry prize.

Charpentier, of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Pathogens in Berlin, stated she was “very emotional” after getting a name from Stockholm with the information.

“When it occurs you’re very shocked, and you’re feeling that it’s not actual,” she stated. “However clearly it’s actual so I’ve to get used to it now.”

Controversial subject

The trail from discovery to prize has taken lower than a decade a comparatively brief interval by Nobel requirements.

And, though CRISPR had been broadly tipped to win the Chemistry prize, there has additionally been concern about potential misuse of the know-how, for instance to create made-to-order ‘designer babies‘.

“The large energy of this know-how implies that we have to use it with nice care,” stated Claes Gustafsson, chair of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry.

“However it’s equally clear that it is a know-how, a way that can present humankind with nice alternatives.”

CRISPR is a crowded subject, with a number of claims on discovery resulting in fierce patent disputes. Gustafsson deflected a query on whether or not the prize committee had thought of different contenders for the award.

Historic micro organism

Charpentier’s breakthrough got here within the research of historic micro organism, Streptococcus pyogenes, when she discovered beforehand unknown molecule was a part of its immune system and was able to ‘cleaving’ DNA.

She printed her findings in 2011 and, in that 12 months, joined forces with biochemist Doudna, of the College of California, Berkeley, to recreate the micro organism’s genetic scissors in a check tube.

DNA is a string with as much as 6 billion coded directions that inform a cell what to do. The great thing about CRISPR/Cas9 is that it can’t solely snip DNA on the proper spot, but additionally restore the be a part of in order that errors don’t creep in.

Right now CRISPR/Cas9 is a typical device in biochemistry and molecular biology labs, utilized in plant remedies and to develop novel remedies of hereditary human ailments equivalent to sickle-cell anaemia.

“We will now simply edit genomes as desired, one thing that earlier than was laborious, even inconceivable,” stated Wittung Stafshede.

In line with custom, chemistry is the third prize introduced yearly and follows these for medication and physics earlier this week.

The prizes for achievements in science, literature and peace have been created and funded within the will of Swedish dynamite inventor and businessman Alfred Nobel and have been awarded since 1901, with the economics award a later addition.

Like a lot else, the pandemic has redrawn the Nobels, with most of the conventional occasions, such because the grand banquet, cancelled or moved on-line whilst analysis into the illness, above all of the hunt for a vaccine, has dominated the scientific highlight.

© Thomson Reuters 2020

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